ダン・ギルバート No.09

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No9-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No.9.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No920.mp3]


So here’s the final piece of this experiment. We bring in a whole new group of naive Harvard students and we say, “You know, we’re doing a photography course, and we can do it one of two ways. We could do it so that when you take the two pictures, you’d have four days to change your mind, or we’re doing another course where you take the two pictures and you make up your mind right away and you can never change it. Which course would you like to be in?” Duh! 66 percent of the students, two-thirds, prefer to be in the course where they have the opportunity to change their mind. Hello? 66 percent of the students choose to be in the course in which they will ultimately be deeply dissatisfied with the picture. Because they do not know the conditions under which synthetic happiness grows.
The Bard said everything best, of course, and he’s making my point here but he’s making it hyperbolically: “Tis nothing good or bad / But thinking makes it so.” It’s nice poetry, but that can’t exactly be right. Is there really nothing good or bad? Is it really the case that gall bladder surgery and a trip to Paris are just the same thing? That seems like a one-question IQ test. They can’t be exactly the same.
In more turgid prose, but closer to the truth, was the father of modern capitalism, Adam Smith, and he said this. This is worth contemplating: “The great source of both the misery and disorders of human life seems to arise from overrating the difference between one permanent situation and another — Some of these situations may, no doubt, deserve to be preferred to others, but none of them can deserve to be pursued with that passionate ardor which drives us to violate the rules either of prudence or of justice, or to corrupt the future tranquility of our minds, either by shame from the remembrance of our own folly, or by remorse for the horror of our own injustice.” In other words: yes, some things are better than others.
We should have preferences that lead us into one future over another. But when those preferences drive us too hard and too fast because we have overrated the difference between these futures, we are at risk. When our ambition is bounded, it leads us to work joyfully. When our ambition is unbounded, it leads us to lie, to cheat, to steal, to hurt others, to sacrifice things of real value. When our fears are bounded, we’re prudent, we’re cautious, we’re thoughtful. When our fears are unbounded and overblown, we’re reckless, and we’re cowardly.
The lesson I want to leave you with, from these data, is that our longings and our worries are both to some degree overblown, because we have within us the capacity to manufacture the very commodity we are constantly chasing when we choose experience.
Thank you.


piece: n. 一つ、1個
bring in: 持ち込む、取り入れる、呼び寄せる、引き入れる
naive: a. 世間知らずの、単純な、だまされやすい、うぶな、お人好しの
change one’s mind: 気が変わる、考えが変わる
make up one’s mind: 決心する
duh: exclam. へぇ、で、当たり前じゃん(わかりきったことに関する発言などをバカにして)
ultimately: adv. 結局、最後に、究極的には、
dissatisfied: a. 不満な、不満足な
the Bard: = the Bard of Avon エイヴォンの詩人【シェイクスピアをさす】
hyperbolically: adv. 大げさに、誇張して
gall bladder: n. 胆嚢【略】GB
turgid: a. 退屈でわかりにくい、大げさな、仰々しい
prose: n. 散文(体)【韻を踏んでいない通常の文体】
modern capitalism: 現代資本主義
Adam Smith: アダム・スミス[1723〜1790]イギリスの経済学者(解説)
contemplate: vt. 〜を熟慮する、じっくり考える、目論む
misery: n. 惨めさ、悲惨さ、不幸、貧困、苦痛
disorder: n. 不調、異常;混乱、乱雑;無秩序、騒動、暴動
overrate: vt. 〜を過大評価する
deserve: vt. 〜を受けるに値する、ふさわしい、して当然だ
pursue: vt. 〜を追求する、追跡する、追いかける
passionate: a. 情熱的な、熱烈な;短気な、怒りっぽい
ardor: n. 情熱、熱意、意気込み
prudence: n. 思慮分別、慎重さ、用心深さ、抜け目なさ
corrupt: vt. 〜を堕落させる、腐敗させる;買収する
tranquility: n. 平静、平穏、安定、静寂、落ち着き
shame: n. 恥ずかしさ、恥、羞恥心
remembrance: n. 記憶、追憶、思い出、回想
folly: n. 愚かなこと、愚劣、愚行、ばかげた行為
remorse: n. 自責の念、深い後悔、良心の呵責
horror: n. 恐怖、うろたえ、ぞっとする思い;嫌悪、憎悪
injustice: n. 不公平、不公正、不当、不法行為
at risk: 危険にさらされて、不安定で、
ambition: n. 野心、野望、目標、念願
bounded: a. 境界のある
joyfully: adv. 喜んで、嬉しそうに
unbounded: a. 境界のない、無制限の、際限のない、限りない
cheat: v. だます、ごまかす、欺く、不正をする
sacrifice: vt. 〜を犠牲にする、あきらめる
of real value: 実質的な値打ちのある
prudent: a. 慎重な、用心深い、分別のある、抜け目のない
cautious: a. 用心深い、注意深い、慎重な
thoughtful: a. 親切な、思いやりのある、配慮を持った
overblown: a. 大げさな、度を越した、強調されすぎた
reckless: a. 無鉄砲な、向こう見ずな、無謀な
cowardly: a. 勇気のない、臆病な、卑怯な
longing: n. 熱望、切望、憧れ
to some degree: ある程度まで
overblown: a. 大げさな、度を越した、
capacity: n. 能力、才能、適性、素質、可能性
manufacture: vt. 製作する、製造する、作る
commodity: n. 産物、商品、日用品;役に立つもの



Adam Smith:

ダン・ギルバート No.08

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No8-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No.8.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No820.mp3]


Now, there are two conditions in this experiment. In one case, the students are told, “But you know, if you want to change your mind, I’ll always have the other one here, and in the next four days, before I actually mail it to headquarters,” — yeah, “headquarters” — “I’ll be glad to swap it out with you. In fact, I’ll come to your dorm room, just give me an email. Better yet, I’ll check with you. You ever want to change your mind, it’s totally returnable.” The other half of the students are told exactly the opposite: “Make your choice, and by the way, the mail is going out, gosh, in two minutes, to England. Your picture will be winging its way over the Atlantic. You will never see it again.” Half of the students in each of these conditions are asked to make predictions about how much they’re going to come to like the picture that they keep and the picture they leave behind. Other students are just sent back to their little dorm rooms and they are measured over the next three to six days on their liking, satisfaction with the pictures. And look at what we find.
First of all, here’s what students think is going to happen. They think they’re going to maybe come to like the picture they chose a little more than the one they left behind, but these are not statistically significant differences. It’s a very small increase, and it doesn’t much matter whether they were in the reversible or irreversible condition.
Wrong-o. Bad simulators. Because here’s what’s really happening. Both right before the swap and five days later, people who are stuck with that picture, who have no choice, who can never change their mind, like it a lot! And people who are deliberating — “Should I return it? Have I gotten the right one? Maybe this isn’t the good one? Maybe I left the good one?” — have killed themselves. They don’t like their picture, and in fact even after the opportunity to swap has expired, they still don’t like their picture. Why? Because the irreversible condition is not conducive to the synthesis of happiness.



condition: n. 条件;状況、事情
experiment: n. 実験;試み
mail: vt. 〜を郵送する
headquarters: n. 本部、司令部
swap: vt. 〈物など〉を交換する, 換える(over);〈物など〉を取り替える(out) «for/with»
dorm room: 寮の部屋(解説)
email: n. 電子メール、Eメール
better yet: できたら、さらに良いのは;それならばいっそ、むしろ
check: vi. 点検する、調べる、検査する;確かめる、相談する
returnable: a. 返品可能な、返却できる、回収可能な
exactly: adv. 正確に、厳密に、ちょうど、まさしく、きっかり
opposite: n. 反対、正反対のこと
by the way: ところで、それはそうと
gosh: exclam. おや、大変、まあ、えっ(Godの婉曲語で、驚きや失望などを表す)
wing one’s way: 飛ぶ
Atlantic: n. 《the ~》大西洋
condition: n. 条件、事情、状態、様子
prediction: n. 予言、予想、予報、予測
leave behind: 〜を置き去りにする、忘れてくる、残す
send back: 送り返す、返送する、返信する
measure: vt. 〜を測る、測定する、評価する、査定する
satisfaction: n. 満足(感)、充足、達成
statistically: adv. 統計的に
significant: a. 重要な、意味のある、大きな影響を与える
increase: n. 増加、増大、増進
reversible: a. 元に戻せる、逆にできる
irreversible: a. 元に戻せない、逆にできない、取り消せない、撤回できない
simulator: n. 模擬実験、シミュレーター
stuck: a. 行き詰まった、手も足も出ない、抜け出せない
deliberate: vi. 熟考する、熟慮する、審議する
opportunity: n. 機会、好機、チャンス
expire: vi. 期限が切れる、満了する、満期になる
conducive: a. 資する、貢献する、(良い結果をもたらす)助けとなる



dorm room:
dorm room

ダン・ギルバート No.07

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No7-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No.7.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No720.mp3]


And I’m going to show you why. Dilbert already knows, of course. You’re reading as I’m talking.
Dogbert‘s tech support. How may I abuse you?”
“My printer prints a blank page after every document.”
“Why would you complain about getting free paper?”
“Free? Isn’t it just giving me my own paper?”
Egad man! Look at the quality of the free paper compared to your lousy regular paper! Only a fool or a liar would say that they look the same!”
“Now that you mention it, it does seem a little silkier.”
“What are you doing?”
“I’m helping people accept the things they cannot change.”
The psychological immune system works best when we are totally stuck, when we are trapped. This is the difference between dating and marriage. You go out on a date with a guy, and he picks his nose; you don’t go out on another date. You’re married to a guy and he picks his nose? He has a heart of gold. Don’t touch the fruitcake! You find a way to be happy with what’s happened.
Now, what I want to show you is that people don’t know this about themselves, and not knowing this can work to our supreme disadvantage.
Here’s an experiment we did at Harvard. We created a black-and-white photography course, and we allowed students to come in and learn how to use a darkroom. So we gave them cameras; they went around campus; they took 12 pictures of their favorite professors and their dorm room and their dog, and all the other things they wanted to have Harvard memories of. They bring us the camera; we make up a contact sheet; they figure out which are the two best pictures; and we now spend six hours teaching them about darkrooms. And they blow two of them up, and they have two gorgeous eight-by-10 glossies of meaningful things to them, and we say, “Which one would you like to give up?” They say, “I have to give one up?” “Yes, we need one as evidence of the class project. So you have to give me one. You have to make a choice. You get to keep one, and I get to keep one.”



Dilbert: ディルバート。アメリカの有名なコマ漫画。米国のサラリーマン社会を描写したコミックで、1989年よりシンジケート連載が始まった。作者はScott Adams。【URL】http://www.dilbert.com/
Dogbert: ドッグバート。Scott Adams著作の人気コミックDilbertの主人公Dilbertの飼い犬の名前で、飼い主と同じように眼鏡を掛けている。(解説)
tech support: (=technical support) テクニカルサポート、技術サポート〘商品に関する技術的なサポートの提供〙; (会社内の)テクニカルサポート部.
abuse: vt. 〜を罵る、〜に暴言を吐く
blank page: 印刷していないページ、空白ページ、白紙ページ
document: n. 資料、ドキュメントファイル、記録
complain: vi. 文句を言う、不平を言う、不満を言う
free: a. 無料の、ただの
egad: exclam. まあ、本当に(驚きや感激を表す)
lousy: a. ひどい、お粗末な、最低の、いやな、質の悪い、劣っている、うんざりする
regular paper: 普通紙
mention: vt. 〜に言及する、軽く触れる、と言う
silky: a. ツヤのある、なめらかな
accept: vt. 受け入れる、承諾する、容認する、受け止める
stuck: a. 行き詰まった、手も足も出ない、困った、抜け出せなくて
trapped: 閉じ込められる、出られなくなる、陥る
dating: デートすること
marriage: n. 結婚(式)、婚姻、結婚生活
go out on a date with ~: 〜とデートをする
pick one’s nose: 鼻をほじる
fruitcake: n. フルーツケーキ
supreme: a. 最高の、究極の
disadvantage: n. 不利益、損失損害;不利な立場、デメリット
black-and-white photography: 白黒写真、モノクロ写真
darkroom: n. (写真現像用の)暗室
contact sheet: 密着印画、コンタクトプリント
figure out: 〜であると分かる、理解する、把握する、考え出す、見当がつく
blow up: (写真などを)引伸ばす、拡大コピーする
gorgeous: a. すばらしい、非常に美しい、豪華な;華やかな、印象的な
eight by ten: 8×10(エイトバイテンまたはバイテン)大判カメラ用のフィルムのこと。一般的に知られている35mm判とは違いシート状になっていて1枚1枚完全暗室でセットする。
glossy: n. (pl. glossies) 光沢紙プリントの写真;⦅主に英くだけて⦆(光沢紙を使った)贅沢(ぜいたく)な雑誌(glossy magazine); a. 光沢[つや]のある〈髪など〉; 光沢紙を使った〈冊子など〉;体裁[見栄え]のよい, もっともらしい
meaningful: a. 意味のある、有意義な
evidence: n. 証拠、根拠
class project: 授業プロジェクト
make a choice: 選択する、選んで取る、好きなのを取る、取捨選択する






eight-by-ten camera

ダン・ギルバート No.06

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No6-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No.6.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DanGilbert-No620.mp3]


Back into the room, we say, “Hi, we’re back.” The patients, bless them, say, “Ah, Doc, I’m sorry, I’ve got a memory problem; that’s why I’m here. If I’ve met you before, I don’t remember.” “Really, you don’t remember? I was just here with the Monet prints?” “Sorry, Doc, I just don’t have a clue.” “No problem, Jim. All I want you to do is rank these for me from the one you like the most to the one you like the least.”
What do they do? Well, let’s first check and make sure they’re really amnesiac. We ask these amnesiac patients to tell us which one they own, which one they chose last time, which one is theirs. And what we find is amnesiac patients just guess. These are normal controls, where if I did this with you, all of you would know which print you chose. But if I do this with amnesiac patients, they don’t have a clue. They can’t pick their print out of a lineup.
Here’s what normal controls do: they synthesize happiness. Right? This is the change in liking score, the change from the first time they ranked to the second time they ranked. Normal controls show — that was the magic I showed you; now I’m showing it to you in graphical form — “The one I own is better than I thought. The one I didn’t own, the one I left behind, is not as good as I thought.” Amnesiacs do exactly the same thing. Think about this result.
These people like better the one they own, but they don’t know they own it. “Yeah, right” is not the right response! What these people did when they synthesized happiness is they really, truly changed their affective, hedonic, aesthetic reactions to that poster. They’re not just saying it because they own it, because they don’t know they own it.
Now, when psychologists show you bars, you know that they are showing you averages of lots of people. And yet, all of us have this psychological immune system, this capacity to synthesize happiness, but some of us do this trick better than others. And some situations allow anybody to do it more effectively than other situations do. It turns out that freedom — the ability to make up your mind and change your mind — is the friend of natural happiness, because it allows you to choose among all those delicious futures and find the one that you would most enjoy. But freedom to choose, to change and make up your mind, is the enemy of synthetic happiness.



clue: n. 手がかり、糸口、きっかけ;ヒント
make sure: 確かめる、確認する、手配する、気をつける
amnesiac: a., n. 記憶喪失症の(人)
guess: vt. 〜ということを推測する、推量する;〜と思う;言い当てる
normal: a. 普通の、通常の;正常な、標準の
out of: [ある数]の中から、〜から
lineup: n. ラインアップ、打順、構成、顔ぶれ、人員構成、出場メンバー
liking: n. 好くこと、好み、趣味、嗜好
score: n. 点数、スコア、成績、得点
graphical: a. = graphic 図式的な、図形の、グラフの
leave behind: 〜を置き去りにする、忘れてくる
affective: a. 感情の
hedonic: a. 快楽の
aesthetic: a. 美の、美学の
poster: n. ポスター、張り紙、広告ビラ
average: n. 平均(値)、標準、並
immune system: 免疫システム、免疫機構、免疫系
capacity: n. 能力、性質、資格、知的能力
trick: n. 芸当、技、ごまかし、たくらみ;いたずら、悪ふざけ
allow A to do: Aに〜するのを許す、許可する;Aが〜できるようにする
situation: n. 事態、情勢、状況、立場、境地
effectively: adv. 効果的に、有効に
turn out: 結局〜ということが分かる、結局〜になる、〜の結果になる
make up one’s mind: 決心する
delicious: a. 実に美味しい、非常に美味な;実に楽しい〔愉快な、快い〕
future: n. 未来、将来、今後、先行き

ダン・ギルバート No.05

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No5-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No.5.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No520.mp3]


Let me first show you an experimental paradigm that is used to demonstrate the synthesis of happiness among regular old folks. And this isn’t mine. It’s a 50-year-old paradigm called the “free choice paradigm.” It’s very simple. You bring in, say, six objects, and you ask a subject to rank them from the most to the least liked. In this case, because this experiment uses them, these are Monet prints. So, everybody can rank these Monet prints from the one they like the most, to the one they like the least. Now we give you a choice: “We happen to have some extra prints in the closet. We’re going to give you one as your prize to take home. We happen to have number three and number four,” we tell the subject. This is a bit of a difficult choice, because neither one is preferred strongly to the other, but naturally, people tend to pick number three because they liked it a little better than number four.

Sometime later — it could be 15 minutes; it could be 15 days — the same stimuli are put before the subject, and the subject is asked to re-rank the stimuli. “Tell us how much you like them now.” What happens? Watch as happiness is synthesized. This is the result that has been replicated over and over again. You’re watching happiness be synthesized. Would you like to see it again? Happiness! “The one I got is really better than I thought! That other one I didn’t get sucks!” That’s the synthesis of happiness.

Now, what’s the right response to that? “Yeah, right!” Now, here’s the experiment we did, and I hope this is going to convince you that “Yeah, right!” was not the right response.
We did this experiment with a group of patients who had anterograde amnesia. These are hospitalized patients. Most of them have Korsakoff’s syndrome, a polyneuritic psychosis. They drank way too much, and they can’t make new memories. OK? They remember their childhood, but if you walk in and introduce yourself, and then leave the room, when you come back, they don’t know who you are.

We took our Monet prints to the hospital. And we asked these patients to rank them from the one they liked the most to the one they liked the least. We then gave them the choice between number three and number four. Like everybody else, they said, “Gee, thanks Doc! That’s great! I could use a new print. I’ll take number three.” We explained we would have number three mailed to them. We gathered up our materials and we went out of the room, and counted to a half hour.



paradigm: n. 範例、模範;理論的枠組み、パラダイム
demonstrate: vt. 〜を証明する、論証する、明らかにする;〜を実演する、説明する;〜を示す、見せる
synthesis: n. 統合、総合、総合体;合成
Monet: モネ。Claude Monetクロード・モネ(1840—1926)フランス印象派の代表的画家。(解説)
print: n. 印刷、印刷物、出版物、(絵画・映画の)複製、版画、印画
rank: vt. 位置付ける、評価する、等級付けする
happen to: 偶然〜する、たまたま〜する、ふと〜する
extra: a. 追加の、余分の、特別の、臨時の
closet: n. 戸棚、クローゼット、収納室、物置部屋
prize: n. 賞、ほうび、賞品
neither A: a. どちらのAも〜しない
prefer: vt. 〜の方を好む
sometime: adv. いつか、そのうち、ある時期
stimulus: n. 刺激(pl. stimuli)
subject: n. (治療や実験の)対象者、被験者
re-rank: vt. 再評価する、再び等級付けする
replicate: vt. 〜を再現する、検証する
over and over again: 何度も繰り返して、何回となく、重ね重ね、再三再四
suck: vi. (物・事が)ひどく悪い
Korsakoff’s syndrome: コルサコフ症候群
polyneuritic: a. 多発性神経炎の <polyneuritis 多発性神経炎
psychosis: n. 精神病
way: adv. はるかに、ずっと、うんと;ものすごく、非常に
gather up: 集める、かき集める
count: vi. 数を数える、計算する(from/to)



Claude Monet:
クロード・モネ(Claude Monet, 1840年11月14日 – 1926年12月5日)は、印象派を代表するフランスの画家。「光の画家」の別称があり、時間や季節とともに移りゆく光と色彩の変化を生涯にわたり追求した画家であった。モネは印象派グループの画家のなかでは最も長生きし、20世紀に入っても『睡蓮』の連作をはじめ多数の作品を残している。ルノワール、セザンヌ、ゴーギャンらはやがて印象派の技法を離れて独自の道を進み、マネ、ドガらはもともと印象派とは気質の違う画家だったが、モネは終生印象主義の技法を追求し続けた、もっとも典型的な印象派の画家であった。
フルネームは当初オスカル=クロード・モネ(Oscar-Claude Monet)であったが、本人がオスカルの名を好まなかったため、通常は「クロード・モネ」と名乗っていた(改名したのかどうかは不詳)。

コルサコフ症候群は、脳の機能障害によって発生する健忘症状である。ロシアの精神科医セルゲイ・コルサコフ(1854年 – 1900年)にちなみ、命名された。後に、ビタミンB1の欠乏によって起こることがわかったため、同じくビタミンB1の欠乏によって起こるウェルニッケ脳症と合わせて「ウェルニッケ・コルサコフ症候群」としてまとめられる場合がある。視床背内側核または両側乳頭体の障害で生ずる。大脳の萎縮を伴うこともある。ウェルニッケ・コルサコフ症候群といっても、障害が側頭葉のウェルニッケ野に生ずるわけではない。病像はウェルニッケ脳症とかなり違っており、それが慢性化した状態ではない。主としてアルコール依存症に由来する栄養失調が原因とされ、外傷や脳卒中など、その他の器質的原因によって起こる場合もある。

ダン・ギルバート No.04

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No4-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No.4.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No420.mp3]


And then finally, some of you recognize this young photo of Pete Best, who was the original drummer for the Beatles, until they, you know, sent him out on an errand and snuck away and picked up Ringo on a tour. Well, in 1994, when Pete Best was interviewed — yes, he’s still a drummer; yes, he’s a studio musician — he had this to say: “I’m happier than I would have been with the Beatles.”
Okay. There’s something important to be learned from these people, and it is the secret of happiness. Here it is, finally to be revealed. First: accrue wealth, power, and prestige, then lose it. (Laughter)
Second: spend as much of your life in prison as you possibly can. (Laughter)
Third: make somebody else really, really rich. And finally: never ever join the Beatles.(Laughter)
OK. Now I, like Ze Frank, can predict your next thought, which is, “Yeah, right.” Because when people synthesize happiness, as these gentlemen seem to have done, we all smile at them, but we kind of roll our eyes and say, “Yeah right, you never really wanted the job.” “Oh yeah, right. You really didn’t have that much in common with her, and you figured that out just about the time she threw the engagement ring in your face.” We smirk because we believe that synthetic happiness is not of the same quality as what we might call “natural happiness.”
What are these terms? Natural happiness is what we get when we get what we wanted, and synthetic happiness is what we make when we don’t get what we wanted. And in our society, we have a strong belief that synthetic happiness is of an inferior kind.
Why do we have that belief? Well, it’s very simple. What kind of economic engine would keep churning if we believed that not getting what we want could make us just as happy as getting it? With all apologies to my friend Matthieu Ricard, a shopping mall full of Zen monks is not going to be particularly profitable, because they don’t want stuff enough.
I want to suggest to you that synthetic happiness is every bit as real and enduring as the kind of happiness you stumble upon when you get exactly what you were aiming for. I’m a scientist, so I’m going to do this not with rhetoric, but by marinating you in a little bit of data.



recognize: vt. 〔自分で見て・人から聞いて〕~だと分かる、~に見覚えがある、(人)の顔を覚えている、~を見分ける、~の見分けがつく
Pete Best: ピート・ベスト(ランドルフ・ピーター・ベストRandolph Peter Best)、1941年11月24日 – )は、イギリスのミュージシャン。ザ・ビートルズのメンバーとしてメジャーデビューする直前まで在籍していたことで知られ、「5人目のビートルズ」と呼ばれる。
original: a. 最初の、初めての、初代の
drummer: n. ドラマー、ドラム奏者
the Beatles: ザ・ビートルズ。イギリス・リヴァプール出身のロックバンド。(➡︎解説)
errand: n. 使い、使い走り、用足し、用事、要件
sneak away: こそこそ立ち去る、こっそり立ち去る、ひそかに立ち去る
pick up: 手に取る、手に入れる、拾い上げる、持ち上げる
interview: vt. 〜とインタビューする、会見する
studio musician: スタジオにおけるレコーディングのための演奏を主な仕事とする演奏家。
reveal: vt. 明らかにする、暴露する
accrue: vi.〈利益権力などが〉(自然に)増加する; 生じる; 〈利息資本などが〉(徐々に)増える «to/from» . 2 〘法〙〈権利などが〉発生する。vt. (ある期間にわたり)〈利息借金など〉を(徐々に)増やす; 〈利益など〉を増加させる.
prestige: n. 名声、威信、評判
prison: n. 刑務所、拘置所、監獄:監禁、拘禁、幽閉
Ze Frank: ゼイ・フランク。アメリカのパフォーマンス・アーティスト
predict: vt. 〜を予測する、予言する、
smile: vi. 微笑む、微笑する、にっこりする(at, on, upon, for / to do)
roll one’s eyes: 目をグルグル回す[くるりと回す・白黒させる・むく]、あきれた表情をする
have A in common: 〈人物などが〉【人物などと】共通のA〈事〉をもつ «with» (Aはa lot, something, nothingなど)
figure out: 〜であると分かる、理解する、解明する、見当がつく
engagement ring: n. 婚約指輪、エンゲージリング
smirk: vi. ニヤニヤ笑う、薄ら笑いを浮かべる
synthetic: a. 合成の、人口の、模造の;総合的な、総合の
economic engine: 経済的原動力
churn: vt. 撹拌する、激しくかき回す、波立たせる vi. 激しく揺れ動く、泡立つ、動揺する
apology: n. 謝罪、詫び、弁明、釈明、言い訳
Matthieu Ricard: マチウ・リカール
zen monk: 禅僧
particularly: adv. 特に、とりわけ;格別に、並外れて
profitable: a. 儲かる、利益を生む、有益な、役に立つ
rhetoric: n. 話術、言葉使い、レトリック;修辞学、雄弁術
marinate: vt. 〜をマリネにする



the Beatles:

バンドの活動期間内に母国イギリスで12作[注釈 3]のオリジナル・アルバムを発売し、その内11作が全英アルバムチャートで週間1位を獲得した。11作の週間1位獲得合計数は162週[注釈 4]。年間売り上げ最高アルバム獲得数4作[注釈 5]と第1作『プリーズ・プリーズ・ミー』による連続1位獲得30週はいずれも1960年代の最高数。シングルは22作発売し、その内17作が1位を獲得。さらにアメリカを初め各国でも高いセールスを記録し、ギネス・ワールド・レコーズに最も成功したグループアーティストと認定されている。また「ローリング・ストーンの選ぶ歴史上最も偉大な100組のアーティスト」において第1位に選出されている。

ダン・ギルバート No.03

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No3-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No.3.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No320.mp3]


We synthesize happiness, but we think happiness is a thing to be found. Now, you don’t need me to give you too many examples of people synthesizing happiness, I suspect. Though I’m going to show you some experimental evidence, you don’t have to look very far for evidence.
As a challenge to myself, since I say this once in a while in lectures, I took a copy of the New York Times and tried to find some instances of people synthesizing happiness. Here are three guys synthesizing happiness. “I am so much better off physically, financially, emotionally, mentally and almost every other way.” “I don’t have one minute’s regret. It was a glorious experience.” “I believe it turned out for the best.”
Who are these characters who are so damn happy? The first one is Jim Wright. Some of you are old enough to remember: he was the chairman of the House of Representatives and he resigned in disgrace when this young Republican named Newt Gingrich found out about a shady book deal he had done. He lost everything. The most powerful Democrat in the country lost everything. He lost his money, he lost his power. What does he have to say all these years later? “I am so much better off physically, financially, mentally and in almost every other way.” What other way would there be to be better off? Vegetably? Minerally? Animally? He’s pretty much covered them there.
Moreese Bickham is somebody you’ve never heard of. Moreese Bickham uttered these words upon being released. He was 78 years old. He’d spent 37 years in a Louisiana State Penitentiary for a crime he didn’t commit. He was ultimately exonerated at the age of 78 through DNA evidence. And what did he say about his experience? “I don’t have one minute’s regret. It was a glorious experience.” Glorious! He is not saying, “Well, there were some nice guys. They had a gym.” “Glorious,” a word we usually reserve for something like a religious experience.
Harry S. Langerman uttered these words, and he’s somebody you might have known but didn’t, because in 1949 he read a little article in the paper about a hamburger stand owned by two brothers named McDonalds. And he thought, “That’s a really neat idea!” So he went to find them. They said, “We can give you a franchise on this for 3,000 bucks.” Harry went back to New York, asked his brother, an investment banker, to loan him the $3,000, and his brother’s immortal words were, “You idiot, nobody eats hamburgers.” He wouldn’t lend him the money, and of course, six months later Ray Kroc had exactly the same idea. It turns out people do eat hamburgers, and Ray Kroc, for a while, became the richest man in America.



suspect: vt. 〜だと思う、〜ではないかと思う、〜であると感じる、〜のような気がする
experimental: a.経験の、経験的な、経験に基づく;実験の、実験的な、試験的な
evidence: n. 証拠、証言、根拠、形跡、痕跡
once in a while: 時々、たまに
instance: n. 例、実例、事例
physically: adv. 身体的に、肉体的に;物理学的に
financially: adv. 財政的に、経済的に、金銭的に
emotionally: adv. 感情的に、情緒的に
mentally: adv. 精神的に、知的に、心理的に
regret: n. 後悔、悔い、残念、遺憾
glorious: a. 輝かしい、光栄ある、名誉ある
for the best: 1〖通例It’s (all) ~〗(可能な範囲で)最良である; (諸条件を考慮すると)思ったほど悪くない; (今はそうでもないが)いずれは良い結果となるかもしれない。2 (結果的に)最も良い方向に〈向かう改良するなど〉3 まったくの善意で, すべてはよかれと思って.
Jim Wright: ジム・ライト(1922−2015年)。米国下院議員
the House of Representatives:〔米国などの二院制議会の〕下院【略】HR
disgrace: n. 不名誉, 恥辱, 不面目(dishonor, shame); 不人気, 不評, 不興; 不信
Republican: n. 共和党員
Newt Gingrich: ニュート・ギングリッチ(1943年6月17日 – )アメリカ合衆国の保守派の政治家。共和党に所属。1995年から1999年まで同国の下院議長を務めた。1995年に民主党の下院多数派独占を42年目にして終止符を打ったことでTIME誌のマン・オブ・ザ・イヤーに選ばれた。
shady: a. いかがわしい、不正の疑いのある、怪しい、うさんくさい
book deal: 出版契約
Democrat: n. 民主党員
Vegetably, Minerally, Animally: それぞれvegetable, mineral, aninalを「〜的に」と副詞形にしたもの
pretty much: ほとんど、まさに、大体
Moreese Bickham:
utter: v. 口に出す、話す、言う、述べる、声に出す
state penitentiary: 州立刑務所
crime: n. 犯罪、罪、悪事
commit: vt. (罪などを)犯す、(悪事を)はたらく
ultimately: adv. 結局、最後に
exonerate: vt. 〜の疑いを晴らす、無罪を証明する
halfway: adv. «…の» 途中で, 途中[中間]まで «through, across, along» , «…の間の» 中間で «between»
reserve: vt. 〜を取っておく、別にしておく
religious: a. 宗教的な、神聖な
Harry S. Langerman: ハリー・ランガーマン。
article: n. 記事、論説
hamburger stand: 〔小規模な〕ハンバーガーの店[屋さん]
franchise: n. 営業権、フランチャイズ、特権
investment banker: 投資銀行家、投資金融業者
loan: v. 貸し付ける、融資する
immortal: a. 不滅の、不朽の、永遠に続く
idiot: n. あほ、馬鹿、間抜け、大ばか。You idiot.ばかやろう。
Ray Kroc: レイ・クロック(1902−84)。米国のファストフードチェーン店マクドナルドの創始者。
for a while: しばらくの間、少しの間

ダン・ギルバート No.02

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No2-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No.2.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No2-201.mp3]


Just give it a moment of thought. You probably don’t feel like you need a moment of thought.
Interestingly, there are data on these two groups of people, data on how happy they are. And this is exactly what you expected, isn’t it? But these aren’t the data. I made these up!
These are the data. You failed the pop quiz, and you’re hardly five minutes into the lecture. Because the fact is that a year after losing the use of their legs, and a year after winning the lotto, lottery winners and paraplegics are equally happy with their lives.
Don’t feel too bad about failing the first pop quiz, because everybody fails all of the pop quizzes all of the time. The research that my laboratory has been doing, that economists and psychologists around the country have been doing, has revealed something really quite startling to us, something we call the “impact bias,” which is the tendency for the simulator to work badly. For the simulator to make you believe that different outcomes are more different than in fact they really are.
From field studies to laboratory studies, we see that winning or losing an election, gaining or losing a romantic partner, getting or not getting a promotion, passing or not passing a college test, on and on, have far less impact, less intensity and much less duration than people expect them to have. This almost floors me — a recent study showing how major life traumas affect people suggests that if it happened over three months ago, with only a few exceptions, it has no impact whatsoever on your happiness.
Why? Because happiness can be synthesized. Sir Thomas Browne wrote in 1642, “I am the happiest man alive. I have that in me that can convert poverty to riches, adversity to prosperity. I am more invulnerable than Achilles; fortune hath not one place to hit me.” What kind of remarkable machinery does this guy have in his head?
Well, it turns out it’s precisely the same remarkable machinery that all off us have. Human beings have something that we might think of as a “psychological immune system.” A system of cognitive processes, largely non-conscious cognitive processes, that help them change their views of the world, so that they can feel better about the worlds in which they find themselves. Like Sir Thomas, you have this machine. Unlike Sir Thomas, you seem not to know it.



moment: n. 瞬間、短時間、ちょっと、しばらく
interestingly: adv.
data: n. データ、資料、情報、事実
expect: vt. 予期する、期待する、予想する
make up: 作り上げる、でっち上げる、捏造する、考え出す
fail: vt. 失敗する、し損なう、できない
pop quiz: n. 抜き打ちテスト〔試験〕
hardly: adv. ほとんど〜ない
all of the time: 常に、いつでも、いちいち
research: n. 研究、調査、探求、追求
laboratory: n. 実験室、研究室
economist: n. 経済学者
psychologist: n. 心理学者、精神分析医
startling: a. 驚くべき、ショッキングな、びっくりさせるような、衝撃的な
impact bias: インパクト・バイアス(事前に経験するネガティブ感情を過大予測する)
tendency: n. 傾向、性向、風潮、趨勢
field study: 現地調査、実地調査
promotion: n. 昇進、昇給、昇格
on and on: 続けて、休まず、どんどんと、長々と、延々と
intensity: n. 激しさ、熱心さ;強度、強さ
duration: n. 継続(期間)、持続(期間)
floor: vt. 圧倒する、打ちのめす、叩きのめす、参らせる
synthesize: vt. 〜を合成する、総合的に扱う
Sir Thomas Browne: サー・トーマス・ブラウン(解説)
convert: vt. 変える、転換する;改造する;改宗させる
adversity: n. 逆境、不運、不幸な出来事、災難
prosperity: n. 繁栄、成功、幸運
invulnerable: a. 傷つかない、難攻不落の、不死身の、屈しない、安全な
Achilles: n.《ギリシャ神話》アキレス◆Homer作Iliadに登場する不死身の勇士。トロイ戦争でParisがAchillesの弱点・かかとを矢で射貫いて殺した。「アキレス腱」はAchillesから。
remarkable: a. 注目すべき、驚くべき、並外れた、珍しい
machinery: n. 機械、機械装置、機構
precisely: adv. まさに、ちょうど;正確に、きちんと
immune system: 免疫システム、免疫系、免疫機構
cognitive: a. 認知の、認識の
process: n. 過程、進行、経過
non-conscious: a. 無意識的な
so that ~: 〜するように、〜できるように
unlike: prep. 〜と違って



Sir Thomas Browne
180px-Sir_Thomas_Browne_by_Joan_Carlile copy copy copy
サー・トーマス・ブラウンSir Thomas Browne(1605年10月19日 – 1682年10月19日)は17世紀イングランドの著作家。医学、宗教、科学、秘教など様々な知識に基づいた著作で知られる。


ダン・ギルバート No.01

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/DanGilbert-No1-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/DanGilbert-No.1.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/DanGilbert-No1-201.mp3]


When you have 21 minutes to speak, two million years seems like a really long time. But evolutionarily, two million years is nothing. And yet in two million years, the human brain has nearly tripled in mass, going from the one-and-a-quarter pound brain of our ancestor here, Habilis, to the almost three-pound meatloaf that everybody here has between their ears. What is it about a big brain that nature was so eager for every one of us to have one?
Well, it turns out when brains triple in size, they don’t just get three times bigger; they gain new structures. And one of the main reasons our brain got so big is because it got a new part, called the “frontal lobe.” Particularly, a part called the “pre-frontal cortex.” What does a pre-frontal cortex do for you that should justify the entire architectural overhaul of the human skull in the blink of evolutionary time?
It turns out the pre-frontal cortex does lots of things, but one of the most important things it does is an experience simulator. Pilots practice in flight simulators so that they don’t make real mistakes in planes. Human beings have this marvelous adaptation that they can actually have experiences in their heads before they try them out in real life. This is a trick that none of our ancestors could do, and that no other animal can do quite like we can. It’s a marvelous adaptation. It’s up there with opposable thumbs and standing upright and language as one of the things that got our species out of the trees and into the shopping mall.
All of you have done this. Ben and Jerry’s doesn’t have liver-and-onion ice cream, and it’s not because they whipped some up, tried it and went, “Yuck.” It’s because, without leaving your armchair, you can simulate that flavor and say “yuck” before you make it.
Let’s see how your experience simulators are working. Let’s just run a quick diagnostic before I proceed with the rest of the talk. Here’s two different futures that I invite you to contemplate. You can try to simulate them and tell me which one you think you might prefer. One of them is winning the lottery. This is about 314 million dollars. And the other is becoming paraplegic.



evolutionarily: adv. 進化的に
and yet :それでも、しかし、それなのに
triple: vt. 三倍にする
mass: n. 質量
1.25 ポンド=約 567 グラム
ancestor: n. 先祖、祖先(↔︎descendant);始祖、原型
Habilis: n. (= Homo habilis)ホモ・ハビリス(解説)
meatloaf: n. ミートローフ(牛または豚肉に粉乳穀類の粉野菜ゼラチンなどを加えて調味し,型に入 れてオーブンで焼くか,蒸し上げた食品。)
be eager for A to do:しきりに A に…してほしいと思っている、熱望している
cf. be eager that 節…であるよう熱望している
turn out: 結局~であることが分かる、~という状態で終わる、結局[結果的に]~になる、~の 結果になる、(~ということに)なる、~ということが分かる[判明する]
structure: n. 構造, 仕組み, 構成; 組織, 機構
frontal lobe: 前頭葉(FL) (新皮質:前頭葉、頭頂葉、側頭葉、後頭葉)(解説)
prefrontal cortex: 前頭前皮質(PFC)(解説)
overhaul: n. 総点検, 修理, オーバーホール; (制度の)改革.
blink: n. まばたき; まばたきほどの短い時間
cf. in [with] the blink of an eye 一瞬のうちに.
evolutionary: a. 形進化の、進化論による、進化的な、漸進的な
marvelous: a. 驚くべき、驚嘆すべき、奇跡的な、ありそうもない、不思議な
adaptation: n. 適合、適応、順応;〔生物進化の過程の〕適応、順応
try out: 試してみる、試用する、試しに使う
trick: 芸当、技、妙技、こつ、秘訣、うまいやり方
opposable thumb (ヒトやサルのように)ほかの指と向かい合わせにできる親指。
shopping mall:〔歩行者専用の〕ショッピングモール、商店街
Ben & Jerry’s: ベン&ジェリーズ。アメリカ合衆国のアイスクリームのブランド名の一つ。
whip A up [up A]: ⦅くだけて⦆A〈食事〉を手早く用意する;⦅主に非難して⦆A〈感情興味人な ど〉をかき立てる; A〈人〉をあおり立てて «…な状態に» する «into» ;〈風などが〉A〈ほこりし ぶきなど〉を舞い上げる
yuck: int.⦅くだけて⦆うわっ, おえっ, げっ (嫌悪・不快・拒絶を表す)
armchair: n. 肘掛け椅子
simulate: vt. シミュレーションする、模倣する
simulator: n. 疑似体験装置, シミュレータ〘飛行機の操縦訓練や遊戯用〙
diagnostic: n. 診断、診察;(コンピュータ、エラーの)診断プログラム
contemplate: vt. 熟考する、じっくり考える
win the lottery: 宝くじに当たる
paraplegic: n. a. 下半身付随(の)、対麻痺の(患者)


Homo habilis:ホモ・ハビリスは、230 万年前から 140 万年前まで存在していたヒト属の一種。 “handy man”(器用な人)の意。中国語では「能人」という。
1964 年、タンザニアのオルドヴァイでルイス・リーキーによって発見された。現在分かっている 限り最も初期のヒト属である。容姿はヒト属の中では現生人類から最もかけ離れており、身長は 130cm と低く、不釣合いに長い腕を持っていた。ヒト科のアウストラロピテクスから枝分かれした と考えられている。脳容量は現生人類の半分ほどである。かつては初期型ホモ・エレクトスへと繋 がりがある現生人類の祖先と考えられていたが、2007 年ネイチャー誌上で両種がおよそ 50 万年以 上に渡って同時期に存在していたとする記事が掲載された。この発見を発表したグループはホモ・ ハビリスはホモ・エレクトスとは共通の祖先から枝分かれし、現生人類へと繋がる事無く絶滅した 種であるという見解を示している。

Frontal lobe 前頭葉:
前頭葉_-_Wikipedia前頭葉は、哺乳類の脳の一部である。大脳の葉のひとつ。前頭葉は両側の大脳半球の前部に存在し、 頭頂葉の前側、側頭葉の上前方に位置する。前頭葉と頭頂葉の間には一次運動野が存在する。一次 運動野は中心前回に関連付けられた特定の身体部位の随意運動を制御している。

prefrontal cortex(前頭前皮質): 
Ptsd-brain copy copy前頭前皮質(PFC)は、脳にある前頭葉の前側の領域で、一次運動野と前運動野の前に存在する。 prefrontal area、前頭連合野、前頭前野、前頭顆粒皮質とも呼ばれる。この脳領域は複雑な認知行 動の計画、人格の発現、適切な社会的行動の調節に関わっているとされている。この脳領域の基本 的な活動は、自身の内的ゴールに従って、考えや行動を編成することにあると考えられる。

300px-Evolution_du_cortex_prefrontal_ja様々な動物の脳。網掛け部分が前頭前皮質。左からネコ、イヌ、アカゲザル、ヒト。徐々に前頭前 皮質の占める面積が広くなっていく。