ジョナサン・ハイト No.01

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No.01

Suppose that two American friends are traveling together in Italy. They go to see Michelangelo’s “David,” and when they finally come face to face with the statue, they both freeze dead in their tracks. The first guy — we’ll call him Adam — is transfixed by the beauty of the perfect human form. The second guy — we’ll call him Bill — is transfixed by embarrassment, at staring at the thing there in the center. So here’s my question for you: which one of these two guys was more likely to have voted for George Bush, which for Al Gore?

I don’t need a show of hands because we all have the same political stereotypes. We all know that it’s Bill. And in this case, the stereotype corresponds to reality. It really is a fact that liberals are much higher than conservatives on a major personality trait called openness to experience. People who are high in openness to experience just crave novelty, variety, diversity, new ideas, travel. People low on it like things that are familiar, that are safe and dependable.

If you know about this trait, you can understand a lot of puzzles about human behavior. You can understand why artists are so different from accountants. You can actually predict what kinds of books they like to read, what kinds of places they like to travel to, and what kinds of food they like to eat. Once you understand this trait, you can understand why anybody would eat at Applebee’s, but not anybody that you know. (Laughter) This trait also tells us a lot about politics. The main researcher of this trait, Robert McCrae says that, “Open individuals have an affinity for liberal, progressive, left-wing political views” — they like a society which is open and changing — “whereas closed individuals prefer conservative, traditional, right-wing views.”

 

ボキャブラリー

Suppose that two American friends are traveling together in Italy. They go to see Michelangelo‘s “David,” and when they finally come face to face with the statue, they both freeze dead in their tracks. The first guy — we’ll call him Adam — is transfixed by the beauty of the perfect human form. The second guy — we’ll call him Bill — is transfixed by embarrassment, at staring at the thing there in the center. So here’s my question for you: which one of these two guys was more likely to have voted for George Bush, which for Al Gore?

I don’t need a show of hands because we all have the same political stereotypes. We all know that it’s Bill. And in this case, the stereotype corresponds to reality. It really is a fact that liberals are much higher than conservatives on a major personality trait called openness to experience. People who are high in openness to experience just crave novelty, variety, diversity, new ideas, travel. People low on it like things that are familiar, that are safe and dependable.

If you know about this trait, you can understand a lot of puzzles about human behavior. You can understand why artists are so different from accountants. You can actually predict what kinds of books they like to read, what kinds of places they like to travel to, and what kinds of food they like to eat. Once you understand this trait, you can understand why anybody would eat at Applebee’s, but not anybody that you know. (Laughter) This trait also tells us a lot about politics. The main researcher of this trait, Robert McCrae says that, “Open individuals have an affinity for liberal, progressive, left-wing political views” — they like a society which is open and changing — “whereas closed individuals prefer conservative, traditional, right-wing views.”

 

suppose that ~: vt. もし〜だったらどうだろう、〜してはどうだろう、〜しよう
Michelangelo: n. ミケランジェロ〔1475−1564;イタリアの画家・彫刻家・建築家〕
David: n. ダビデ像 (ダビデ:ソロモン王の父。古代イスラエルの2番目の王。旧約聖書のPsalms(詩編)の作者と伝承される。)
come face to face with ~: 〜と顔を突き合わせる,〜ときちんと向き合う,〜に面と向かう
statue: n. 像,塑像、彫像
in one’s tracks: その場で、ただちに
cf. stop (dead) in one’s tracks: 〈人が〉(驚いて)突然立ち止まる;〈過程・活動などが〉突然止まる
transfix: vt. [驚き・恐怖・強い興味などで]動けなくする,立ちすくませる,くぎ付けにする
a show of hands: (賛成反対を示す)挙手
cf. decide by a show of hands: 挙手で決める.
stereotype: n. 固定観念,定型,通念、典型
correspond: vi. (〜に)合致する,調和する,符合する (to)
liberal: n. 進歩主義者,自由主義者,リベラル
conservative: n. 保守主義者,伝統主義者
personality trait: 人格的特徴,性格特性
openness: n. (異なる文化や経験などに対して)心が開かれていること,寛容さ;開放性;開示性
crave: vt. 〜を強く望む,〜を切望する;〜を懇願する,〜を頼む
novelty: n. 新奇さ,目新しさ,珍しさ,斬新さ
variety: n. 多様性,多様さ,変化に富むこと
diversity: n. 〔意見・種類などの〕多様性,雑多なこと,種々、さまざま;相違,差異
dependable: a. 信頼できる,頼りになる、安心できる
trait: n. 特徴,特質
puzzle: n. (人を悩ませる)難題,難問、理解できないこと、なぞ
accountant: n. 会計士,会計(係)、経理,経理担当者
predict: vt. 〜を予測する,予言する、予知する
Applebee’s: アメリカのレストランチェーン
politics: n. 支配[力・優劣]関係、政治,政治学,政策,策略、政争,権力闘争
Robert McCrae: ロバート・マクレイ。the National Institute of Aging(国立老化研究所)の性格心理学者
open: a. 隠し事をしない,率直な、あからさまな;公平な,偏見のない
individual: n. 個人,一人の人間,人間
affinity: n. 親しみ,親近感,一体感,好み,相性《for/with/between》
progressive: a. 進歩的な,進歩主義の
left-wing: a. 左派の、左翼の
political view: n. 政治的見解,政治観,政見、政治的な考え
whereas: conj. 〜だけれども(while)、一方で
closed: a. 閉鎖的な,排他的な,限定された;偏狭な,秘密の,禁止の
conservative: a. 保守的な、保守主義の,伝統を守る
right-wing: a. 右派の,右翼の

ミケランジェロの『ダビデ像』

David_von_Michelangelo

レストラン・チェーンの『アップルビーズ』

Applebee's_night_view

 

解説

johathan Haidt
ジョナサン・ハイト(Jonathan Haidt, 1963年 – )wikipediaより
アメリカ合衆国の社会心理学者。バージニア大学心理学部教授。専門は道徳心理学、ポジティブ心理学で、道徳の感情的基礎、文化との関連についての研究に従事している。

略歴
1985年にイェール大学哲学科を卒業。
1995年よりバージニア大学心理学部に着任。
2001年ポジティブ心理学テンプルトン賞を受賞。
2009年よりバージニア大学心理学部教授。

著書
『しあわせ仮説:古代の知恵と現代科学の知恵』
『社会はなぜ左と右にわかれるのか――対立を超えるための道徳心理学』

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