ジョナサン・ハイト No.04

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No.04

The first one is harm/care. We’re all mammals here, we all have a lot of neural and hormonal programming that makes us really bond with others, care for others, feel compassion for others, especially the weak and vulnerable. It gives us very strong feelings about those who cause harm. This moral foundation underlies about 70 percent of the moral statements I’ve heard here at TED.

The second foundation is fairness/reciprocity. There’s actually ambiguous evidence as to whether you find reciprocity in other animals, but the evidence for people could not be clearer. This Norman Rockwell painting is called “The Golden Rule,” and we heard about this from Karen Armstrong, of course, as the foundation of so many religions. That second foundation underlies the other 30 percent of the moral statements I’ve heard here at TED.

The third foundation is in-group/loyalty. You do find groups in the animal kingdom — you do find cooperative groups — but these groups are always either very small or they’re all siblings. It’s only among humans that you find very large groups of people who are able to cooperate, join together into groups, but in this case, groups that are united to fight other groups. This probably comes from our long history of tribal living, of tribal psychology. And this tribal psychology is so deeply pleasurable that even when we don’t have tribes, we go ahead and make them, because it’s fun. (Laughter) Sports is to war as pornography is to sex. We get to exercise some ancient, ancient drives.

The fourth foundation is authority/respect. Here you see submissive gestures from two members of very closely related species. But authority in humans is not so closely based on power and brutality, as it is in other primates. It’s based on more voluntary deference, and even elements of love, at times.

The fifth foundation is purity/sanctity. This painting is called “The Allegory Of Chastity,” but purity’s not just about suppressing female sexuality. It’s about any kind of ideology, any kind of idea that tells you that you can attain virtue by controlling what you do with your body, by controlling what you put into your body. And while the political right may moralize sex much more, the political left is really doing a lot of it with food. Food is becoming extremely moralized nowadays, and a lot of it is ideas about purity, about what you’re willing to touch, or put into your body.

 

ボキャブラリー

The first one is harm/care. We’re all mammals here, we all have a lot of neural and hormonal programming that makes us really bond with others, care for others, feel compassion for others, especially the weak and vulnerable. It gives us very strong feelings about those who cause harm. This moral foundation underlies about 70 percent of the moral statements I’ve heard here at TED.

The second foundation is fairness/reciprocity. There’s actually ambiguous evidence as to whether you find reciprocity in other animals, but the evidence for people could not be clearer. This Norman Rockwell painting is called “The Golden Rule,” and we heard about this from Karen Armstrong, of course, as the foundation of so many religions. That second foundation underlies the other 30 percent of the moral statements I’ve heard here at TED.

The third foundation is in-group/loyalty. You do find groups in the animal kingdom — you do find cooperative groups — but these groups are always either very small or they’re all siblings. It’s only among humans that you find very large groups of people who are able to cooperate, join together into groups, but in this case, groups that are united to fight other groups. This probably comes from our long history of tribal living, of tribal psychology. And this tribal psychology is so deeply pleasurable that even when we don’t have tribes, we go ahead and make them, because it’s fun. (Laughter) Sports is to war as pornography is to sex. We get to exercise some ancient, ancient drives.

The fourth foundation is authority/respect. Here you see submissive gestures from two members of very closely related species. But authority in humans is not so closely based on power and brutality, as it is in other primates. It’s based on more voluntary deference, and even elements of love, at times.

The fifth foundation is purity/sanctity. This painting is called “The Allegory Of Chastity,” but purity‘s not just about suppressing female sexuality. It’s about any kind of ideology, any kind of idea that tells you that you can attain virtue by controlling what you do with your body, by controlling what you put into your body. And while the political right may moralize sex much more, the political left is really doing a lot of it with food. Food is becoming extremely moralized nowadays, and a lot of it is ideas about purity, about what you’re willing to touch, or put into your body.

 

mammal: n. 哺乳動物、哺乳類
neural: a. 神経の、神経系の
hormonal : a. ホルモンの
bond: vi. 接着する、結合する;きずなで結ばれる、結束する、まとまる
compassion: n. 思いやり、同情、憐れみ
vulnerable: a. 傷つきやすい、もろい、脆弱な
underlie: vt. 〜の根底にある、基礎にある、根拠をなす
statement: n. 発言、意見;陳述、声明
ambiguous: a. あいまいな、多義的な、不明瞭な
reciprocity: n. 相互関係、互恵
Norman Rockwell: ノーマン・ロックウェル(1894〜1978。アメリカの日常を描いたイラストレーター・画家。
The Golden Rule: 『黄金律』(ノーマン•ロックウェルの作品。解説参照。)
Karen Armstrong: カレン・アームストロング(イギリスの宗教学者。TEDで講演している。)
http://www.ted.com/talks/karen_armstrong_let_s_revive_the_golden_rule?language=ja
the animal kingdom: 動物界
cooperative: a. 協力的な、協同の
sibling: n. (男女の別なく)きょうだい
cooperate: vi. 協力する、協同する
tribal: a. 部族の、種族の
pleasurable: a. 楽しい、愉快な、気持ちのよい
exercise: vt. 〜を働かせる、使う、用いる、発揮する、行使する、発動する
drive: n. 衝動、動因、欲動;気力、意欲、やる気
submissive: a. 服従的な、従順な
brutality: n. 残忍性、蛮行、野蛮、残虐行為
voluntary: a. 自発的な、自由意志の
deference: n. 服従、恭順、敬意、尊敬
element: n. 要素、要因
at times: 時々、時には
The Allegory Of Chastity: ハンス・メムリンクの画。
purity: n. 純潔、清浄、純粋さ
suppress: vt. 〜を鎮圧する、制圧する;〜を規制する;〜を抑える、我慢する、押し殺す
ideology: n. 観念形態、イデオロギー、信条、信念体系
attain: vt. 手に入れる、獲得する;実現する、成就する
virtue: n. 善、美徳、徳、美点;純潔、貞節
political right: 政治的右派
political left: 政治的左派
nowadays: adv. 最近は、近頃は、今日では

 

解説

Norman Rockwell
images のコピー

The Golden Rule
GoldenRule

ゴールデン・ルールというと、内容が深遠で、人生にとってこの上なく有益な教訓のことを言う。通例、キリストの山上の垂訓の一節「何事でも人々からしてほしいと望むことは、人々にもそのとおりにせよ」〈マタイによる福音書・七〉を指す。

ノーマン・ロックウェルの絵の中でも、この”The Shinner”は大好きです。
Rockwell_1953_Girl-with-Black-Eye

Karen Armstrong カレン・アームストロング
1273474942

ハンス・メムリンク(Hans Memling, 1430年/1440年頃 – 1494年)15世紀フランドルの画家。
imgres のコピー

Hans Memling: The Allegory Of Chastity
Hans_Memling,_Allegory_of_Chastity

 

現在「モラル根源理論」として、以下の6つの根源があげられている。

The Six Foundations
1. Care/harm: cherishing and protecting others.
2. Fairness/cheating: rendering justice according to shared rules. (Alternate name: Proportionality)
3. Liberty/oppression: the loathing of tyranny.
4. Loyalty/betrayal: standing with your group, family, nation. (Alternate name: Ingroup)
5. Authority/subversion: obeying tradition and legitimate authority. (Alternate name: Respect.)
6. Sanctity/degradation: abhorrence for disgusting things, foods, actions. (Alternate name: Purity.)

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