ジョナサン・ハイト No.03


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No.03

But I’m here today to give you a choice. You can either take the blue pill and stick to your comforting delusions, or you can take the red pill, learn some moral psychology and step outside the moral matrix. Now, because I know — (Applause) — OK, I assume that answers my question. I was going to ask you which one you picked, but no need. You’re all high in openness to experience, and besides, it looks like it might even taste good, and you’re all epicures. So anyway, let’s go with the red pill. Let’s study some moral psychology and see where it takes us.

Let’s start at the beginning. What is morality and where does it come from? The worst idea in all of psychology is the idea that the mind is a blank slate at birth. Developmental psychology has shown that kids come into the world already knowing so much about the physical and social worlds, and programmed to make it really easy for them to learn certain things and hard to learn others. The best definition of innateness I’ve ever seen — this just clarifies so many things for me — is from the brain scientist Gary Marcus. He says, “The initial organization of the brain does not depend that much on experience. Nature provides a first draft, which experience then revises. Built-in doesn’t mean unmalleable; it means organized in advance of experience.” OK, so what’s on the first draft of the moral mind? To find out, my colleague, Craig Joseph, and I read through the literature on anthropology, on culture variation in morality and also on evolutionary psychology, looking for matches. What are the sorts of things that people talk about across disciplines? That you find across cultures and even across species? We found five — five best matches, which we call the five foundations of morality.

 

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But I’m here today to give you a choice. You can either take the blue pill and stick to your comforting delusions, or you can take the red pill, learn some moral psychology and step outside the moral matrix. Now, because I know — (Applause) — OK, I assume that answers my question. I was going to ask you which one you picked, but no need. You’re all high in openness to experience, and besides, it looks like it might even taste good, and you’re all epicures. So anyway, let’s go with the red pill. Let’s study some moral psychology and see where it takes us.

Let’s start at the beginning. What is morality and where does it come from? The worst idea in all of psychology is the idea that the mind is a blank slate at birth. Developmental psychology has shown that kids come into the world already knowing so much about the physical and social worlds, and programmed to make it really easy for them to learn certain things and hard to learn others. The best definition of innateness I’ve ever seen — this just clarifies so many things for me — is from the brain scientist Gary Marcus. He says, “The initial organization of the brain does not depend that much on experience. Nature provides a first draft, which experience then revises. Built-in doesn’t mean unmalleable; it means organized in advance of experience.” OK, so what’s on the first draft of the moral mind? To find out, my colleague, Craig Joseph, and I read through the literature on anthropology, on culture variation in morality and also on evolutionary psychology, looking for matches. What are the sorts of things that people talk about across disciplines? That you find across cultures and even across species? We found five — five best matches, which we call the five foundations of morality.

 

pill: n. 錠剤、丸薬
comforting: a. 安心させる、ほっとさせる、慰めになる
delusion: n. 思い違い、妄想
moral psychology: n. 道徳心理学
step: vi. 一歩進む、歩く、脚を踏み入れる
assume: vt. 〜と仮定する、見なす、思い込む
epicure: n. 美食家、食通;(飲食物にぜいたくな)快楽主義者
blank slate: n. 白紙状態(= tabula rasa:何も書かれていない書板の意。感覚的経験をもつ前の心の状態を比喩的に表現したもの。人間の知識の起源に関し、生得観念を否定する経験論の主張を概括する言葉。)
at birth: 生まれた時に、生まれた時は、出生時における
developmental psychology: n. 発達心理学
program: vt. 〜するように仕組む、プログラムする
innateness: n. 生得的なもの、生まれつき備わっているもの、本質性、内在性
innate: a. (能力・資質などが)生得的な、生まれつき備わっている;(信条などが)生来の、生まれながらの
clarify: vt. 〜を明らかにする、分かりやすくする、明確にする
Gary Marcus: ゲアリー・マーカス。心理学者。ニューヨーク大学教授。同大学幼児言語センター所長。
draft: n. 設計図、下書き、草案、草稿
revise: vt. 変える、見直す、修正する、改める
unmalleable: a. 順応性のない
malleable: a. 〈金属などが〉打ち延ばしできる、可鍛性の、展性のある;〈人の性格などが〉影響を受けやすい、柔軟な、融通が利く
Craig Joseph: クレイグ・ジョーゼフ。
literature: n.〔特定分野の〕文献、論文
anthropology: n. 人類学、文化人類学
evolutionary psychology: n. 進化心理学
match: n. 一致、似合うもの、釣り合ったもの
discipline: n. 訓練、修養、しつけ、鍛錬;学習[訓練・修練]法
species: n. 種;人類、人種
foundation: n. 基礎、根拠、根幹;土台、基礎、基盤
morality: n. 道徳、倫理、道義;道徳性、倫理性、道義性;徳性、倫理観

 

解説

Gary Marcus                                    Craig Joseph
Gary-Marcus-author-photo-credit-Jacob-Pritchard-300x297        images

 

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