ジョナサン・ハイト No.08

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No.08

Some people think that religion is an adaptation evolved both by cultural and biological evolution to make groups to cohere, in part for the purpose of trusting each other, and then being more effective at competing with other groups. I think that’s probably right, although this is a controversial issue. But I’m particularly interested in religion, and the origin of religion, and in what it does to us and for us. Because I think that the greatest wonder in the world is not the Grand Canyon. The Grand Canyon is really simple. It’s just a lot of rock, and then a lot of water and wind, and a lot of time, and you get the Grand Canyon. It’s not that complicated. This is what’s really complicated, that there were people living in places like the Grand Canyon, cooperating with each other, or on the savannahs of Africa, or on the frozen shores of Alaska, and then some of these villages grew into the mighty cities of Babylon, and Rome, and Tenochtitlan. How did this happen? This is an absolute miracle, much harder to explain than the Grand Canyon.

The answer, I think, is that they used every tool in the toolbox. It took all of our moral psychology to create these cooperative groups. Yes, you do need to be concerned about harm, you do need a psychology of justice. But it really helps to organize a group if you can have sub-groups, and if those sub-groups have some internal structure, and if you have some ideology that tells people to suppress their carnality, to pursue higher, nobler ends. And now we get to the crux of the disagreement between liberals and conservatives. Because liberals reject three of these foundations. They say “No, let’s celebrate diversity, not common in-group membership.” They say, “Let’s question authority.” And they say, “Keep your laws off my body.”

 

ボキャブラリー

Some people think that religion is an adaptation evolved both by cultural and biological evolution to make groups to cohere, in part for the purpose of trusting each other, and then being more effective at competing with other groups. I think that’s probably right, although this is a controversial issue. But I’m particularly interested in religion, and the origin of religion, and in what it does to us and for us. Because I think that the greatest wonder in the world is not the Grand Canyon. The Grand Canyon is really simple. It’s just a lot of rock, and then a lot of water and wind, and a lot of time, and you get the Grand Canyon. It’s not that complicated. This is what’s really complicated, that there were people living in places like the Grand Canyon, cooperating with each other, or on the savannahs of Africa, or on the frozen shores of Alaska, and then some of these villages grew into the mighty cities of Babylon, and Rome, and Tenochtitlan. How did this happen? This is an absolute miracle, much harder to explain than the Grand Canyon.

The answer, I think, is that they used every tool in the toolbox. It took all of our moral psychology to create these cooperative groups. Yes, you do need to be concerned about harm, you do need a psychology of justice. But it really helps to organize a group if you can have sub-groups, and if those sub-groups have some internal structure, and if you have some ideology that tells people to suppress their carnality, to pursue higher, nobler ends. And now we get to the crux of the disagreement between liberals and conservatives. Because liberals reject three of these foundations. They say “No, let’s celebrate diversity, not common in-group membership.” They say, “Let’s question authority.” And they say, “Keep your laws off my body.”

 

adaptation: n. 適合、適応、順応;脚色、改作、編曲
evolve: vt. (徐々に)発達させる、進化させる、発展させる
cohere: 結合する、まとまる、団結する
in part: 一部分において、一つには、ある程度、いくぶん
for the purpose of ~: 〜の目的で、〜のために
effective: a. 効果的な、効果がある、効き目のある;印象的な、人目を引く
controversial: a. 議論を呼ぶ、議論の余地のある、論争の、異論の多い
issue: n. (議論の)争点、論点;(問題の)核心、急所
the Grand Canyon: グランド・キャニオン【略】GCN
complicated: a. 複雑な、入り組んだ、込み入った;理解しにくい、分かりにくい
savannah: n. サバンナ(熱帯、亜熱帯の草原)
mighty: a. 強力な、強大な
Babylon: バビロン(メソポタミア地方の古代都市。ユーフラテス川の東岸にあったバビロニア地方の古代都市。バビロン第一王朝の首都。新バビロニア時代には世界的都市となる。遺跡はイラクのバグダッドの南ヒラの近くにある。)
Tenochtitlan: テノチティトラン(アステカの首都。アステカAztecaは1428年頃から1521年まで北米のメキシコ中央部に栄えたメソアメリカ文明の国家。)
absolute: a. 【名詞の前で】まったくの、ひどい;完全な、明白な、確かな、
toolbox: n. 道具箱、工具箱
concerned: a. (について、ということを)心配する、懸念する、気遣う、配慮する(about)
justice: n. 正義、公正、正当性、公平
subgroup: n. 下位集団、小群、下位群、部分群、亜群
suppress: vt. (考えや気持ちを意識的に)抑える、我慢する;鎮圧する、抑圧する;抑制する
carnality: n. 肉欲、身体化、限世欲
pursue: vt. 〜を追求する、追跡する、追いかける
crux: n. (the~) (問題・疑問・議論などの)最重要点、核心 (the crux of the matter 問題の核心)
in-group: n. 排他的な仲間集団、内集団、派閥
question: vt. 〜に疑問を抱く、異議を唱える;〜について尋ねる、を尋問する

 

解説

グランド・キャニオン(Grand Canyon)はアメリカ合衆国アリゾナ州北部にある峡谷である。コロラド高原がコロラド川の浸食作用によって削り出された地形であり、先カンブリア時代からペルム紀までの地層の重なりを目の当たりにできるところでもある。地球の歴史を秘めている価値と共に、その雄大な景観から合衆国の初期の国立公園の一つであるグランド・キャニオン国立公園に含まれている。さらに1979年には世界遺産に登録された。(ウィキペディアより)

Grand_Canyon_view_from_Pima_Point_2010 copy

バビロン
tower-of-babel copy

テノチティトラン
Tenochtitlan2 copy

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