ジョナサン・ハイト No.09

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No.09

Liberals have very noble motives for doing this. Traditional authority, traditional morality can be quite repressive, and restrictive to those at the bottom, to women, to people that don’t fit in. So liberals speak for the weak and oppressed. They want change and justice, even at the risk of chaos. This guy’s shirt says, “Stop bitching, start a revolution.” If you’re high in openness to experience, revolution is good, it’s change, it’s fun. Conservatives, on the other hand, speak for institutions and traditions. They want order, even at some cost to those at the bottom. The great conservative insight is that order is really hard to achieve. It’s really precious, and it’s really easy to lose. So as Edmund Burke said, “The restraints on men, as well as their liberties, are to be reckoned among their rights.” This was after the chaos of the French Revolution. So once you see this — once you see that liberals and conservatives both have something to contribute, that they form a balance on change versus stability — then I think the way is open to step outside the moral matrix.

This is the great insight that all the Asian religions have attained. Think about yin and yang. Yin and yang aren’t enemies. Yin and yang don’t hate each other. Yin and yang are both necessary, like night and day, for the functioning of the world. You find the same thing in Hinduism. There are many high gods in Hinduism. Two of them are Vishnu, the preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer. This image actually is both of those gods sharing the same body. You have the markings of Vishnu on the left, so we could think of Vishnu as the conservative god. You have the markings of Shiva on the right, Shiva’s the liberal god. And they work together. You find the same thing in Buddhism. These two stanzas contain, I think, the deepest insights that have ever been attained into moral psychology. From the Zen master Seng-ts’an: “If you want the truth to stand clear before you, never be for or against. The struggle between for and against is the mind’s worst disease.” Now unfortunately, it’s a disease that has been caught by many of the world’s leaders. But before you feel superior to George Bush, before you throw a stone, ask yourself, do you accept this? Do you accept stepping out of the battle of good and evil? Can you be not for or against anything?

 

ボキャブラリー

Liberals have very noble motives for doing this. Traditional authority, traditional morality can be quite repressive, and restrictive to those at the bottom, to women, to people that don’t fit in. So liberals speak for the weak and oppressed. They want change and justice, even at the risk of chaos. This guy’s shirt says, “Stop bitching, start a revolution.” If you’re high in openness to experience, revolution is good, it’s change, it’s fun. Conservatives, on the other hand, speak for institutions and traditions. They want order, even at some cost to those at the bottom. The great conservative insight is that order is really hard to achieve. It’s really precious, and it’s really easy to lose. So as Edmund Burke said, “The restraints on men, as well as their liberties, are to be reckoned among their rights.” This was after the chaos of the French Revolution. So once you see this — once you see that liberals and conservatives both have something to contribute, that they form a balance on change versus stability — then I think the way is open to step outside the moral matrix.

This is the great insight that all the Asian religions have attained. Think about yin and yang. Yin and yang aren’t enemies. Yin and yang don’t hate each other. Yin and yang are both necessary, like night and day, for the functioning of the world. You find the same thing in Hinduism. There are many high gods in Hinduism. Two of them are Vishnu, the preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer. This image actually is both of those gods sharing the same body. You have the markings of Vishnu on the left, so we could think of Vishnu as the conservative god. You have the markings of Shiva on the right, Shiva’s the liberal god. And they work together. You find the same thing in Buddhism. These two stanzas contain, I think, the deepest insights that have ever been attained into moral psychology. From the Zen master Seng-ts’an: “If you want the truth to stand clear before you, never be for or against. The struggle between for and against is the mind’s worst disease.” Now unfortunately, it’s a disease that has been caught by many of the world’s leaders. But before you feel superior to George Bush, before you throw a stone, ask yourself, do you accept this? Do you accept stepping out of the battle of good and evil? Can you be not for or against anything?

 

noble: a. 気高い、高潔な
motive: n. 動機、真意、誘因
authority: n. 権力、支配権;権力者、支配者
repressive: a. 抑圧的な、弾圧的な
restrictive: a. 制限する、拘束的な、制限的な
at the bottom: 底部の(に)、下部の(に)
fit in: 合わせる、適応する、適合する、調和する;溶け込む、なじむ
oppressed: n. 《the ~》 抑圧された[虐げられた]人々;虐げられた、不公平な扱いを受けた;(人の気分が)憂鬱な
at the risk of ~: 〜の危険を覚悟で[侵して]、〜を犠牲にして
chaos: n. 混沌、大混乱、カオス
bitch: vi. 不平[不満・文句]を言う、愚痴をこぼす
on the other hand: 他方では
speak for ~: 〜の代弁をする、代表する;〜に賛成意見を述べる;〜をかばう[擁護する・弁護する]
institution: n. 制度、慣例
order: n. 秩序、道理;慣例、規則、習慣;体制、治安
achieve: vt. 獲得する、成し遂げる、達成する、実現する
precious: a. 貴重な、大切な、尊い、高価な
Edmund Burke: エドマンド・バーク(1729年1月12日 – 1797年7月9日)アイルランド生まれのイギリスの政治思想家、哲学者、政治家、美学者。
reckon: vt. 見なす、考える、思う
the French Revolution: フランス革命
contribute: vt. 〜に貢献する、寄与する;与える、提供する
versus: prep. 対、〜に対する
attain: vt. 達成する、実現する、手に入れる、成就する
yin and yang: (中国哲学の)陰陽
function: vi. 機能する、作用する
Hinduism: n. ヒンズー教
Vishnu: n. ヴィシュヌ神(保存・維持の神)。Brahma, Siva, Vishnuの三神がヒンドゥー教の三大神。
preserver: n. 保護者、守護者、維持するもの、守るもの
Shiva: n. シヴァ神(破壊・生殖の神)
destroyer: n. 破壊者、破壊するもの
marking: n. 印、模様、標識
Buddhism: n. 仏教
stanza: n. 【韻律】連、節、スタンザ(通例4行以上からなる詩の単位。それぞれのスタンザは同じ行数で同じ脚韻を持つ。)
Zen: n. 禅(宗)(Zen Buddhism)
Seng-ts’an: Sēngcànとも書く。僧璨(そうさん、生年不詳(推定500年~505年頃) – 大業2年10月15日(606年11月20日))は、中国・隋代の僧。禅宗の第三祖(開祖は達磨、二祖は慧可)。 「璨」とは、「美しい珠」、「光り輝く宝玉(宝石)」のことである。唐の玄宗皇帝により『(鑑)智禅師』の諡を賜った。
for: a. 〜に賛成して
against: a. 〜に反対して
step out of ~: 〜の外へ出る

 

解説

Edmund Burke:
エドマンド・バーク
(1729年1月12日 – 1797年7月9日)アイルランド生まれのイギリスの政治思想家、哲学者、政治家、美学者。ホイッグ党の有力指導者。「フランス革命についての省察」で革命を厳しく批判。イギリスの伝統的な政治体制を擁護し,保守主義の理念を提起した。また「崇高」の概念を解明して一八世紀ドイツ美学に影響を与えた。「保守主義の父」として知られる。
f_burke

陰陽図
200px-Yin_yang.svg

ヒンドゥー教の三大神ヒンドゥー教の三大神
(Trinity – Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva)
trinity-brahma-vishnu-shiva-CJ14_l

僧璨
(そうさん、生年不詳(推定500年~505年頃) – 大業2年10月15日(606年11月20日))
中国・隋代の僧。禅宗の第三祖(開祖は達磨、二祖は慧可)。
「璨」とは、「美しい珠」、「光り輝く宝玉(宝石)」のことである。唐の玄宗皇帝により『(鑑)智禅師』の諡を賜った。
Sengcan

『信心銘』
四言一四六字から成る韻文。一巻。北周・隋代の僧璨(そうさん)作。信心不二の禅の極致を説く。
信心銘の内容はこちら→ http://www.shomonji.or.jp/zazen/shinjinmei.pdf

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