ダン・ギルバート No.02

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[audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No2-20.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No.2.mp3] [audio:http://akioiwai.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/DanGilbert-No2-201.mp3]


Just give it a moment of thought. You probably don’t feel like you need a moment of thought.
Interestingly, there are data on these two groups of people, data on how happy they are. And this is exactly what you expected, isn’t it? But these aren’t the data. I made these up!
These are the data. You failed the pop quiz, and you’re hardly five minutes into the lecture. Because the fact is that a year after losing the use of their legs, and a year after winning the lotto, lottery winners and paraplegics are equally happy with their lives.
Don’t feel too bad about failing the first pop quiz, because everybody fails all of the pop quizzes all of the time. The research that my laboratory has been doing, that economists and psychologists around the country have been doing, has revealed something really quite startling to us, something we call the “impact bias,” which is the tendency for the simulator to work badly. For the simulator to make you believe that different outcomes are more different than in fact they really are.
From field studies to laboratory studies, we see that winning or losing an election, gaining or losing a romantic partner, getting or not getting a promotion, passing or not passing a college test, on and on, have far less impact, less intensity and much less duration than people expect them to have. This almost floors me — a recent study showing how major life traumas affect people suggests that if it happened over three months ago, with only a few exceptions, it has no impact whatsoever on your happiness.
Why? Because happiness can be synthesized. Sir Thomas Browne wrote in 1642, “I am the happiest man alive. I have that in me that can convert poverty to riches, adversity to prosperity. I am more invulnerable than Achilles; fortune hath not one place to hit me.” What kind of remarkable machinery does this guy have in his head?
Well, it turns out it’s precisely the same remarkable machinery that all off us have. Human beings have something that we might think of as a “psychological immune system.” A system of cognitive processes, largely non-conscious cognitive processes, that help them change their views of the world, so that they can feel better about the worlds in which they find themselves. Like Sir Thomas, you have this machine. Unlike Sir Thomas, you seem not to know it.



moment: n. 瞬間、短時間、ちょっと、しばらく
interestingly: adv.
data: n. データ、資料、情報、事実
expect: vt. 予期する、期待する、予想する
make up: 作り上げる、でっち上げる、捏造する、考え出す
fail: vt. 失敗する、し損なう、できない
pop quiz: n. 抜き打ちテスト〔試験〕
hardly: adv. ほとんど〜ない
all of the time: 常に、いつでも、いちいち
research: n. 研究、調査、探求、追求
laboratory: n. 実験室、研究室
economist: n. 経済学者
psychologist: n. 心理学者、精神分析医
startling: a. 驚くべき、ショッキングな、びっくりさせるような、衝撃的な
impact bias: インパクト・バイアス(事前に経験するネガティブ感情を過大予測する)
tendency: n. 傾向、性向、風潮、趨勢
field study: 現地調査、実地調査
promotion: n. 昇進、昇給、昇格
on and on: 続けて、休まず、どんどんと、長々と、延々と
intensity: n. 激しさ、熱心さ;強度、強さ
duration: n. 継続(期間)、持続(期間)
floor: vt. 圧倒する、打ちのめす、叩きのめす、参らせる
synthesize: vt. 〜を合成する、総合的に扱う
Sir Thomas Browne: サー・トーマス・ブラウン(解説)
convert: vt. 変える、転換する;改造する;改宗させる
adversity: n. 逆境、不運、不幸な出来事、災難
prosperity: n. 繁栄、成功、幸運
invulnerable: a. 傷つかない、難攻不落の、不死身の、屈しない、安全な
Achilles: n.《ギリシャ神話》アキレス◆Homer作Iliadに登場する不死身の勇士。トロイ戦争でParisがAchillesの弱点・かかとを矢で射貫いて殺した。「アキレス腱」はAchillesから。
remarkable: a. 注目すべき、驚くべき、並外れた、珍しい
machinery: n. 機械、機械装置、機構
precisely: adv. まさに、ちょうど;正確に、きちんと
immune system: 免疫システム、免疫系、免疫機構
cognitive: a. 認知の、認識の
process: n. 過程、進行、経過
non-conscious: a. 無意識的な
so that ~: 〜するように、〜できるように
unlike: prep. 〜と違って



Sir Thomas Browne
180px-Sir_Thomas_Browne_by_Joan_Carlile copy copy copy
サー・トーマス・ブラウンSir Thomas Browne(1605年10月19日 – 1682年10月19日)は17世紀イングランドの著作家。医学、宗教、科学、秘教など様々な知識に基づいた著作で知られる。



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